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Inhibition of MDM2 attenuates neointimal hyperplasia via suppression of vascular proliferation and inflammation

Toru Hashimoto, Toshihiro Ichiki, Jiro Ikeda, Eriko Narabayashi, Hirohide Matsuura, Ryohei Miyazaki, Keita Inanaga, Kotaro Takeda, Kenji Sunagawa
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cvr/cvr108 711-719 First published online: 15 April 2011

Abstract

Aims Tumour protein p53 plays an important role in the vascular remodelling process as well as in oncogenesis. p53 is negatively regulated by murine double minute 2 (MDM2). A recently developed MDM2 inhibitor, nutlin-3, is a non-genotoxic activator of the p53 pathway. So far, the effect of MDM2 inhibition on vascular remodelling has not been elucidated. We therefore investigated the effect of nutlin-3 on neointima formation.

Methods and results Nutlin-3 up-regulated p53 and its downstream target p21 in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). DNA synthesis assay and flow cytometric analysis revealed that nutlin-3 inhibited platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced VSMC proliferation by cell cycle arrest. This inhibitory effect was abrogated in p53-siRNA-transfected VSMCs. Furthermore, nutlin-3 inhibited PDGF-stimulated VSMC migration. Treatment with nutlin-3 attenuated neointimal hyperplasia at 28 days after vascular injury in mice, associated with up-regulation of p53 and p21. BrdU incorporation was decreased at 14 days after injury in nutlin-3-treated mice. TUNEL assay showed that nutlin-3 did not exaggerate apoptosis of the injured vessels. Infiltration of macrophages and T-lymphocytes and mRNA expression of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand-5, interleukin-6, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 were decreased in the injured vessels of nutlin-3-treated mice. Nutlin-3 suppressed NF-κB activation in VSMCs, but not in p53-siRNA-transfected VSMCs.

Conclusions The MDM2 antagonist nutlin-3 inhibits VSMC proliferation, migration, and NF-κB activation, and also attenuates neointimal hyperplasia after vascular injury in mice, which is associated with suppression of vascular cell proliferation and an inflammatory response. Targeting MDM2 might be a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of vascular proliferative diseases.

  • MDM2
  • p53
  • Proliferation
  • Inflammation
  • Neointima
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