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Mitochondrial reprogramming through cardiac oxygen sensors in ischaemic heart disease

Susana Cadenas, Julián Aragonés, Manuel O. Landázuri
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cvr/cvq256 219-228 First published online: 2 August 2010

Abstract

Under hypoxic conditions, mitochondria can represent a threat to the cell because of their capacity to generate toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, cardiomyocytes are equipped with an oxygen-sensing pathway that involves prolyl hydroxylase oxygen sensors and hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), which induces a tightly regulated programme to keep ischaemic mitochondrial activity under control. The aim of this review is to provide an update on the pathways leading to mitochondrial reprogramming, which occurs in the myocardium during ischaemia, with particular emphasis on those induced by HIF activation. We start by studying the mechanisms of mitochondrial damage during ischaemia and upon reperfusion, highlighting the importance of the formation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore during reperfusion and its consequences for cardiomyocyte survival. Next, we analyse hypoxia-induced metabolic reprogramming through HIF and its important consequences for mitochondrial bioenergetics, as well as the phenomenon known as the hibernating myocardium. Subsequently, we examine the mechanisms underlying ischaemic preconditioning, focusing, in particular, on those that involve the HIF pathway, such as adenosine signalling, sub-lethal ROS generation, and nitric oxide production. Finally, the role of the mitochondrial uncoupling proteins in ischaemia tolerance is discussed.

  • Hypoxia-inducible factor
  • Ischaemia
  • Mitochondria
  • Preconditioning
  • Prolyl hydroxylase
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